PLANT PATHOLOGY

Plant: Plant is a living organism of the kind exemplified by trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, ferns, and mosses, typically growing in a permanent site, absorbing water and inorganic substances through its roots, and synthesizing nutrients in its leaves by photosynthesis using the green pigment chlorophyll.

Pathology: The word pathology comes from two Greek words, Apathos@ (suffering), and Alogos@(study). Therefore, plant pathology is the study of the suffering or diseases of plants. The science of plant diseases is called plant pathology, or phytopathology. There are a wide variety of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes that cause these diseases. Diseases caused by these pathogens are often called biotic diseases. Also, environmental conditions, such as winter damage or drought stress, can cause disease in plants. Diseases caused by these factors are often called abiotic diseases.

Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors). Organisms that cause infectious disease include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, viroids, virus-like organisms, phytoplasmas, protozoa, nematodes and parasitic plants. Not included are ectoparasites like insects, mites, vertebrate, or other pests that affect plant health by eating of plant tissues.

Plant pathology also involves the study of pathogen identification, disease etiology, disease cycles, economic impact, plant disease epidemiology, plant disease resistance, how plant diseases affect humans and animals, pathosystem genetics, and management of plant diseases. Normally, nonparasitic disorders of plants are not included in the study of diseases, but it is still important to recognize them. These disorders include nutrient imbalances, temperature extremes, toxic chemicals, mechanical injury, water imbalances, air pollution, and genetic problems. Most environmentally induced problems tend to be uniform, whereas disease may show up in spots throughout a nursery.

The science of plant pathology is closely allied with other sciences such as botany, mycology, microbiology, genetics, chemistry, horticulture, agronomy, and soil science. Plant pathologists integrate and use information from many of these sciences to develop insights into disease development and disease control. Plant pathologists are responsible for studying plant diseases, and their studies include various aspects of plant diseases, such as the organisms and environmental conditions that cause disease in plants, the mechanisms by which these factors cause disease, the interactions between these causal agents and the plant, and methods for managing or controlling plant diseases.

Branches of Plant Pathology: Plant pathology comprises with the fundamental knowledge and technologies of Botany, Plant Anatomy, Plant Physiology, Mycology, Bacteriology, Virology, Nematology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Genetic Engineering, Biochemistry, Horticulture, Tissue Culture, Soil Science, Forestry, Physics, Chemistry, Meteorology.